definition of hypoglycemic agents

The hypoglycemic agents are a type of drug used to lower blood sugar levels, mainly in cases of insulin resistance and diabetes.

There are many types of hypoglycemic medications, which are classified according to their molecular structure and their mechanism of action. However, broadly speaking, two broad types are considered: oral hypoglycemic, which are taken in tablet or lozenge form, and the insulin, which is administered in the form of injections.

Oral hypoglycemic

Medications used to lower blood glucose levels by mouth are of various types. The selection of the most appropriate is based on the conditions and characteristics of the person to be treated.

In the case of obese people with high blood glucose, in whom the main mechanism of diabetes is insulin resistance, the drug of choice is metformin. This medicine has several effects in the body that lead to a decrease in blood glucose, they include the decrease in the absorption of sugar in the intestine, the inhibition of glucose production in the liver through a biochemical process called neoglycogenesis and the increase in the use of sugar by tissues.

Diabetics who are not obese benefit from another type of hypoglycemic, known as sulfonylureasThese act by increasing the release of insulin by the pancreas as well as increasing the receptors for this hormone that are located in the tissues, so that the sugar levels fall, since the mechanisms related to its use are activated.

There are two other groups of hypoglycemic agents, one known as thiazolidinediones, in which the pioglitazone, which works by increasing the use of sugar by the tissues and inhibiting the production of sugar in the liver (neoglycogenesis); the other group corresponds to drugs such as acarbose which decreases the absorption of sugar in the intestine.

More recently, new drugs are available, vildagliptin and saxagliptin They are members of a group that works by increasing the levels of hormones called incretins that are capable of stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas.

Precautions When Taking Hypoglycemic Medications

People who receive this type of medication require periodic medical evaluation in order to verify the body's response to treatment, as well as the presence of factors that increase the risk of developing hypoglycemia, including:

- Fasting or not eating food on a regular basis (skipping meals).

- Having some type of kidney involvement, since this means that the medication is not adequately eliminated, accumulating in the blood, which makes it have a greater effect.

- Practice accentuated physical activity, since exercising muscle is a powerful blood sugar burner.

Taking a very high dose, many times the errors in the dose are due to a misunderstanding of the medical instruction. Make sure your doctor gives you written instructions and verify the dose of the hypoglycemic medicine you are taking, as well as the number of times a day you should take it and whether it should be done before or with food.

Photo: Fotolia - Microgen

$config[zx-auto] not found$config[zx-overlay] not found