The magnetization, also known as magnetization or magnetization , is a process from which the magnetic dipole moments of a material align or tend to do so, put in simpler words, magnetization is the procedure that is carried out to provide magnetic properties to an iron or steel bar , is the communication of the properties of a magnet to a certain body that receives them.
Procedure that gives a metal magnetic properties
Magnetization allows us to transfer the magnetic quality from one body to another body and after having successfully carried out the procedure, that body, to which the magnetic properties were attributed, will begin to magnetically attract other objects as if it were a magnet.
What is a magnet? Characteristics
The magnet consists of a mineral composed of the combination of oxygen with a simple or compound radical in the first degree of oxidation and an iron sesquioxide that has the property of attracting metals such as iron, nickel, cobalt, among others. since around it it produces a magnetic field.
Meanwhile, the magnet has what are called two opposing magnetic poles, the north and the south, popularly called that way and as a consequence of its orientation towards the extremes of planet earth.
The approach of the north poles of two imane generates an automatic repulsion, being that the attraction is generated between the opposite poles.
Magnets usually have a bar shape, with the poles at the ends, or they can have the classic horseshoe shape.
Most of the materials with which we interact have, to a greater or lesser degree, a possibility of magnetic attraction, however, undoubtedly, metals have a greater and effective share in this sense than, for example, that of a plastic material. .
The aforementioned materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt have clear magnetic properties that can be seen in action quickly and easily.
Magnetization can be observed when any metal of those named is brought close to a magnet; the metal part of the body immediately adheres to it and will remain stuck, being very difficult to detach it, having to then use force to detach it from it.
This phenomenon of magnetism occurs because bodies are made up of three particles such as protons, electrons and neutrons. Electrons are naturally magnets and so it is that in bodies these elements are dispersed in all their extension and can exert their action and effect in a natural way.
Among the most used magnetization methods, the following stand out: rubbing or direct contact (one of the ends of the material, either steel or iron, is rubbed with one of the poles of the magnet, while the other end is rubbed with the other pole), induction (Very small iron or steel bars are arranged in the vicinity of a fairly powerful magnet) and use of electric current (A cable is wound on a piece of iron, what is popularly called a coil, which will create an electromagnet; the attraction action only occurs while the electric current is transferred).
It should be noted that in some materials, especially ferro-magnetic ones, the magnetization may have very high values and exist even in the absence of an external field. Another way to magnetize a body is to spin it.