Ecology It is the study of the relationship between living beings and their environment, specifically it deals with analyzing the influence of some on others. When we speak of environment we are considering certain physical properties that are defined as local abiotic factors, and this includes the climate, geology and organisms that coexist in said environment. Ecology is a broad concept that addresses everything from our relationship with the planet to small daily practices that have a lesser impact on the environment.
The concept of biotope tends to be used to consider all the abiotic factors in an area. When evaluating the biotope and living beings in an environment (animals, plants, protists, monkeys and fungi) as a whole, it is preferred to use the term ecosystem. Thus, for example, a simple puddle is a complete ecosystem, with its abiotic factors (water, air, bottom soil) and biotic. The sum of different interdependent ecosystems forms the so-called biomes. In this model, a tropical jungle is a large biome in which various ecosystems are confused. Finally, the sum of all the biomes of the planet gives rise to the biosphere.
In this sense, it is interesting to note that, etymologically, ecology means "Home study", understanding home as the environment or habitat in which living beings develop. The root of this word, in fact, is similar to that of concepts as different as "economy". The study of ecology involves tools from such versatile sciences as mathematics and statistics, on the one hand, and biosciences and geology, on the other. Although when we talk about this branch of biology we tend to associate it with the preservation of the environment and plant and animal species, ecology consists of a multidisciplinary science that uses other disciplines and that in turn has derivations such as microbial ecology, of populations and communities, of behavior, ethoecology, mathematical ecology and others. It cannot be forgotten that ecology is also integrated with health sciences. On the one hand, changes in biomes and ecosystems caused by deleterious effects of human action motivate the appearance or enhancement of various conditions, among which are the vector-borne diseases and the results of environmental contamination. On the other hand, there is a tendency today to consider an ecological approach to health in different aspects. Thus, the human intestine is recognized as a true ecosystem, with its abiotic factors and its local microflora that constitute the biotic factor.
Certain terms derived from the sciences of ecology (for example, the ecological footprint), currently constitute indicators of the impact on the planet that a certain way of life has. Consequently, when speaking of sustainability or sustainability reference is made to the balance between the practices of a species and its environment. Agroecology, among others, seeks to apply the principles of ecology to the design and development of sustainable agricultural systems. The environmentalism or environmental movement defends the protection of the environment as a criticism of wasteful, careless and irresponsible human practices.
Different entities and organizations of a local or international nature are the result of this movement, such as Greenpeace, World Wildlife Fund, and many others.
Issues currently associated with ecology include the preservation of endangered species, climate change, and the conservation of water and other natural resources. This conception of the importance of scientific evaluation of the action of humanity on the planet is not new, although it has reached a greater deployment in the last 50 years and, in particular, has taken a greater momentum from the most recent decades. Recent In this context, non-governmental organizations have played an important role that has surpassed that of many governments. However, the participation of different nations in the ecological conservation process is recognized, in the context of the creation of natural reserves and national parks in which it is not possible to inflict damage on the abiotic or biotic components of ecosystems and biomes. Finally, different international organizations, including FAO and UNESCO, also promote a rational exploitation of resources to maintain an approach to ecology that is appropriate to safeguard all forms of life on Earth.