Phylogeny is a field that within the biology it is exclusively dedicated to studying and knowing the origin, where they come from, and the development of the various species that populate our planet, and it also does the same with the genealogies of living beings.
The starting point to know the phylogeny of organisms is to establish their coincidences in matters such as the DNA, morphology, embryology, DNA molecules, among others. Of course, if any of them give a positive result then we can speak of a genetic relationship and evolutionary resemblance.
There are organisms that are in close relationship with others in evolutionary matters because, for example, they can share a common ancestry, and it is precisely this question that the phylogeny or phylogenetics, as it is also called.
Now, to carry out this relational study is that the matrix of DNA molecules is used. From this data, phylogenetic trees.
In the work of the naturalist Charles Darwin, The origin of species, dating from the mid-nineteenth century, this tree appears for the first time drawn, which tells us so much about the evolution of living organisms.
Meanwhile, these mentioned genetic trees constitute the bases on which the phylogenetic classification is based, which is a type of scientific classification that uniquely considers the evolutionarily close relationships between the species that inhabit our planet. It also reconstructs the history of how they diversified, from when they first appeared on earth to present times.
For example, this information, in addition to being vital when it comes to knowing a species, knowing why it has such or which characteristics, is super enriching because it also allows us to know for sure which species come from others, the untimely disappearances of some, their mutations, among other issues.
Darwin was undoubtedly a pioneer and to whom we owe in great measure the desire to discover the evolutionary history of species. His proposal named as natural selection it was the one that best explained biological evolution. According to their theories, the conditions of an environment will be key when it comes to favoring or hindering the development of a species.