definition of infusion

A infusion It is a procedure that is carried out to obtain a venous line. During it, a vein is catheterized, which will be done in a different way if it is short or long-term treatments.

It is carried out by medical indication, and must be carried out by trained personnel, since it deserves a series of care before, during and after it is carried out to avoid complications.

In which cases is an infusion performed?

The puncture of a vein is carried out for three main reasons: to obtain blood, to supply some substance to the bloodstream or to introduce some instrument for diagnosis or treatment.

Venoclysis to obtain blood. Obtaining blood samples is necessary for laboratory studies such as hematology, blood chemistry, special tests, and blood cultures. In this case, implements such as pericranial catheters (commonly called butterflies or scalps) or vacutainers are used, both designed for short use. Once the sample is taken, these devices are removed.

Venocolysis for supply. The puncture of a vein can be carried out in order to supply something to the body, such as solutions to hydrate, medications, nutrients (parenteral nutrition), contrast media for imaging studies or blood transfusions. In this case, catheters designed to remain in the vein for several hours or days are used, such as the jelco catheter, which has the advantage that after the puncture, what is inserted is a plastic tube, which allows the area to be mobilized. without the risk of damaging the tissues.

Venocolysis for monitoring. Sometimes infusion is done to introduce devices into the bloodstream for diagnostic purposes, such as cardiac catheterization or central venous pressure monitoring.

Types of infusion

When taking a venous line there are two possibilities: access a peripheral venous line or a central venous line.

The peripheral venous lines They are those located in the veins of the upper limbs, mainly at the level of the dorsal aspect of the hand, the wrist or the crease of the elbow. In the case of children, venous lines can be taken in the legs or in the head, this is not done in adults, since in the case of the veins of the legs it is possible to produce thrombus detachment or blood clots stuck to the wall veins causing processes such as embolism.

Another option is the central venous line. This type of access consists of placing catheters at the level of larger caliber veins such as the jugular vein or the subclavian vein, mainly in patients in critical conditions or when the supply of drugs that irritate the peripheral veins is to be carried out.

Complications of infusion

These types of procedures are not painful, it is possible to feel burning when inserting the needle, but then there should not be any discomfort.

When puncturing a vein, a small amount of blood may leak out, causing a hematoma. When aseptic measures are not adopted, some microorganisms can be introduced and occasionally an inflammation of the vein known as phlebitis. Untrained hands can puncture structures such as tendons, peripheral nerves or arteries, which in addition to being painful can have other consequences.

The infusions that are maintained for more than 48 hours constitute gateways to microorganisms causing severe infections, especially staph. For this reason, it is important to maintain good hygiene at the puncture site and change the catheter every 48 hours by rotating the insertion site.

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