The name of statistics is designated to that science that has a strong presence and action of mathematics in its bases and that mainly deals with the collection, analysis and interpretation of data that seek to explain the conditions in those phenomena of a random type.
One of the salient features of the statistic is that It is a transversal science that is functional to a wide variety of disciplines that make use of it to understand and interpret some questions that they make to their objects of study. Physics, most of the social sciences, the sciences related to health and areas such as quality control and business, and also some government institutions, often use statistics very frequently to understand some phenomena that occur among their ranks..
Statistics is divided into two branches: descriptive statistics and statistical inference. The first deals with the methods of collecting, visualizing, describing and summarizing the data that originate from the phenomena that are under its magnifying glass. This type of statistic summarizes the data you collect numerically or graphically. And on the other hand, statistical inference is dedicated to the generation of models, inferences and predictions associated with the phenomena under study, taking into account the randomness of the observations.
This branch of statistics is mostly used to model patterns in data and draw inferences about the population under study. Inferences can take the form of answers to standard questions yes, no, numerical estimates, forecasts of future observations, descriptions of association, modeling of relationships between variables.
If we want to know the origins of this science, we will inevitably have to go back to the origins of civilization. Rocks, wooden sticks, skins and cave walls were widely used to make representations and other symbols. For example, the Babylonians, around 3,000 B.C. they used small clay tablets to collect data about their agricultural productions or the genres that they exchanged or sold through barter.
Obviously, all of this, over the years and centuries, was widely surpassed thanks to the creation of new instruments that are much more sophisticated and timely when it comes to measuring phenomena and collecting data. Today, many questions and problems in everyday life start from the use of statistics to achieve an answer or a solution, as appropriate.