Electronegativity it's basically a measure that demonstrates the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself that correspond to another atom when both form a chemical bond. This bond is a typical chemical process in charge of the interactions that occur between atoms, ions, and molecules.
It is worth mentioning that the larger the atom, the greater the capacity to attract electrons, while this attraction capacity will be associated with two issues such as: its ionization potential and electro-affinity.
Knowing the electronegativity measurement is very important when it comes to knowing the type of bond that two atoms will generate after their combination, that is, it can be predicted much more easily.
The bonds that occur between atoms that correspond to the same class and that have the same electronegativity will be apolar. So, the greater the difference in electronegativity between two atoms, the greater the electron density in the vicinity of the atom that is more electronegative.
Now, it is worth mentioning that when the difference in electronegativity between two atoms is important, there will be a total transfer of electrons and what is known as ionic species will be formed.
In the particular case of metals, as they have a low electronegativity, they will form positive ions while non-metallic elements have a lower electronegativity and negative ions will be formed.
There are two scales, Pauling's and Mulliken's, to classify the various electronegativity values of atoms.
In the first, the most electronegative element that appears is fluorine, with a value of 4.0, while the least electronegative is francium, with only 0.7. The american Linus carl pauling He was one of the first quantum chemists and in 1954 his enormous contribution was recognized, distinguishing him with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
On the Mulliken scale, neon has a value of 4.60 while rubidium 0.99. Robert Sanderson Mulliken He was also a prominent American chemist, who developed not only in research but also in the training of professionals. In 1966 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.