A data bus is a device through which data and relevant information are transported inside a computer.
For computing, the bus is a series of cables that work by loading data into memory to transport it to the Central Processing Unit or CPU. In other words, a data bus is an information transmission highway or channel within the computer that communicates the components of said system with the microprocessor. The bus works by ordering the information that is transmitted from different units and peripherals to the central unit, acting as a traffic light or regulator of priorities and operations to be executed.
Its operation is simple: in a bus, all the different nodes that compose it receive data indistinctly, those to which this data is not directed ignore it and, instead, those for which the data is relevant, communicate it.
From a technical point of view, a data bus is a set of electrical cables or conductors in metallic tracks on the motherboard of the computer. The signals that carry the data circulate on this set of conductors.
There are different types of buses. The address busFor example, it binds the CPU control block to place data during compute processes. The control bus, on the other hand, it carries data regarding the operations that the CPU is performing. The data bus itself, it transports information between hardware devices such as keyboard, mouse, printer, monitor and also storage devices such as hard disk or mobile memories.
Various types of buses are used in different types of computers. For PC, for example, the PCI, ISA, VESA, MCA, PATA, SATA and others like USB or Firewire are common. On the Mac, on the other hand, the same ones or others such as NuBus are used.